Psychology 101 – Study List for the Final Exam 2022 Chapter 9 – Development • De
Psychology 101 – Study List for the Final Exam 2022 Chapter 9 - Development • Definition of Development • Important Issues ---- nature and nurture Developmental Theories to Know Piaget – Theory of Cognitive Devpt. Vygotsky – Social Cognitive Development -- (scaffolding; zone of proximal development) Kohlberg – Theory of Moral Devpt. Erikson – Theory of Psychosocial Devpt. Marcia – extension of Erikson regarding identity (instructor handout) Related to Erikson’s 5th stage on Identity vs Role Confusion stage • James Marcia’s extension of Erikson’s work --- four identity statuses Marcia’s Four Identity Statuses o identity diffusion o identity foreclosure o identity moratorium o identity achievement o note: attend to MAMA cycling information Other concepts to know: • Prenatal Development Stages Know basic info about states of prenatal development Teratogens What are they? Why matter? • Infancy Maturation Example changes in Motor skills Gross motor skills Fine motor skills Reflexes Know the basic inborn reflexes Preferences Tastes, smells, sounds, etc Attachment Definition What impacts attachment Secure attachment Insecure attachments Know research studies on Attachment by both the Harlows and Mary Ainsworth • Childhood – early, middle, late Physical changes and physical maturation Cognitive Changes – see Piaget • Adolescence Puberty definition Physical Changes at puberty Primary Sex characteristics Secondary sex characteristics Chemical changes at puberty Emotional & Social changes and issues • Adulthood (Know about changes throughout lifespan) ▪ Physical Changes = example: menopause ▪ Cognitive / Mental Changes – example = memory changes related to crystalized versus fluid intelligence ▪ Social Changes – changes in social networks as age Important issues about aging: ▪ What characteristics show most decline? Which show less? ▪ How do lifestyle choices (nutrition, activities, relationships) and health impact on-going age-related changes throughout adulthood? ▪ What is meant by primary versus secondary aging? Good topics for potential short essay questions: • Know the difference between nature and nurture • Attachment – What were the contributions of Erikson, the Harlow’s, and Ainsworth to our understanding of attachment? • What is meant when we critique Piaget as having underestimated children and overestimated adults? Chapter 12 - Social Psychology Social Thinking aka Social Cognition situationism and dispositionism (and attributions) Know which position social psychology favors Situational attribution vs dispositional attribution Know Zimbardo Prison Experiment and what was learned from it about the power of the situation Zimbardo video on The Lucifer Effect – embedded in PowerPoint and shown in class (see potential essay question that was emailed and discussed) Biases Fundamental attribution error Actor-observer Self-serving Self-effacing aka modesty Just world hypothesis Blaming the victim Attitudes Know Concepts including A, B, C - components of attitudes (affect, cognition, behavior) Know Cognitive dissonance Prosocial behavior and altruism Know Concepts and Definitions including Bystander effect Diffusion of responsibility Factors that impact helping – Latene and Darley research Group Interactions and Intergroup conflict – know associated concepts and terms including Stereotype Prejudice Discrimination In group out group Homogeneity effect – from class discussion Heterogeneity effect – from class discussion Ingroup bias Ethnocentricity Sherif’s Robber’s Cave study video embedded in Power Point discussed in class Know details of study and what it demonstrated about Things that increase conflict between groups Things that decrease conflict between groups Social Group Influence Conformity – know concepts, terms and details of Asch study Obedience – know concepts, terms and details of Milgram study Know Group Think, Risky Shift, Group polarization, etc. Chapter 10 - Emotion and Motivation 10.1Motivation • intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. • drive theory • Self-efficacy • Bandura – Role of expectations that we have about the consequences of our behaviors • Maslow's Hierarchy is a very common framework. You may see it again in business, education, and other courses. 10.4- Emotion • James-Lange theory • Cannon-Bard theory • the two-factor theory Chapter 14 – Stress, Lifestyle, and Health Know the following concepts and know key terms associated with them Biopsychosocial Model of Health • Health psychology—study of how psychological factors influence health, illness, and health-related behaviors Stress and Health Module 14.1 • Stress o Stimulus-based --- stress as caused by events outside of person (e.g., Holmes and Rahe) o Response-based --- focus is on physiological response of the person (e.g., Selye’s GAS model) • Book definition of stress focuses on the more negative sense of the word as seen in textbook definition --- process whereby an individual perceives and responds to events that he appraises as overwhelming or threatening to his well-being • Primary appraisal • Secondary appraisal • See figure 14.3 Eustress (good stress) – motivation to change and achieve • Distress (distress) – excessive, overwhelming, threatening • See figure 14.4 Early research contributions on Stress Walter Cannon studies on Fight or Flight response Selye General Adaptation Model General Adaptation Syndrome • Three stage process • Alarm • Resistive • Exhaustion • See Figure 14.10 Physiological Basis of Stress Endocrine Responses to Stress • Fight or flight preparation of body • release of Stress hormones—produced by adrenal glands • Adrenal medulla—catecholamines • Epinephrine and norepinephrine • Increases respiration, BP, heart rate • Adrenal cortex—corticosteroids • Release stored energy Reduces inflammation and immune system responses See figure 14.11 Module 14.2 – Stressors • Stressors— • Sources/types: Life changes Daily hassles Catastrophes and other stressors Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) – Holmes and Rahe (1967) Module 14.3 – Stress and Illness Review physiological disorders and psychophysiological disorders in text See Table 4.3 Stress and the Immune System • Immunosuppression (e.g., HIV) • Psychoneuroimmunology • Key effects of stress: o Stress leads to suppressed immune function o Chronic stress tends to have more influence o Stress-weakened immune system increases likelihood of illness Immune system --- battles bacteria, viruses, and other foreign invaders that try to set up a home in your body --- includes specialized white blood cells that fight infection are manufactured in bone marrow and stored in the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes until needed. See figures 14.15 and 14.16 Stress, Personality, and Heart Disease **Type A vs. type B Personality - Research on type A Personality • Chronic Negative emotions • hostility Depression and Heart issues Asthma Tension headaches Module 14.4 Regulating Stress Coping styles • Problem-focused coping • Emotion-focused coping Control and stress • Perceived control • Learned helplessness – see figure 14.22 From Beck Power Point see • Explanatory style Social Support – textbook and Beck PowerPoint • Emotional support • Tangible support • Informational support Social and Cultural Sources of Stress • poverty, racism, crime • acculturative stress • see textbook on the impact of prejudice and discrimination Stress Reduction Techniques and Tips to De-stress • Simplify life -- reduce daily hassles • Develop relaxation skills including meditation • Care for body (nutrition, exercise, etc.) • Aerobic exercise • Biofeedback • Seek information • expand social network • Set reasonable goals -- Prevent burnout • Cognitive reframing • adjust negative thoughts & emotions • Positively express emotions Module 14.5 – Pursuit of Happiness (and Positive Psychology) • See definition of happiness and the three components – see figure 14.25 • Review research findings on factors connected to happiness • Life events and happiness – see figure 14.28 • Increasing happiness o How can we increase our happiness? • When countries are compared on average national happiness, what are the six key variables that most impact average national happiness scores? • Positive psychology o What is this? o Who is considered the father of positive psychology? • What is the impact of positive affect and optimism on happiness? • Flow o What is flow? o Who is given credit for this concept? Potential Essay question related to Chapter 14: What category of stressor is both most present in our lives and is the type over which we have the most control? Name two examples of this type of stressor in your life. Use what you have learned in Chapter 14 about stress regulation and stress reduction. For each stressor you named, explain how you could better control this stressor and its potential negative impact on your stress levels and thus your health. (Be specific and use strategies you read about.) Chapter 15 - Psychological Disorders – Concepts List Basic terms: • Psychological disorder o Atypical behavior o Harmful dysfunction o APA definition • Psychopathology • Etiology • Diagnosis o Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) – American Psychiatric Association Diagnosis Comorbidity o International Classification of Disorders (ICD) – World Health Organization • Perspectives on Psychological Disorders o Supernatural o Biological o Psycho-social (not in textbook – see Beck handouts on disorders and treatment) o Diathesis-Stress Model - acknowledges psycho-social as well as biological Major Categories of Psychological Disorders Know terms, types and causes for each category Anxiety Disorders Pathological Anxiety 3 features distinguish normal anxiety from pathological anxiety Specific Phobias Development of Phobias Learning Theory Preparedness theory—phobia serves to enhance survival Panic Disorder Panic attacks Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Impulse-control Disorders (including obsessive-compulsive) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Body-dysmorphic Hoarding Stress-related Disorders Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Definition Risk-factors Support Learning and development of PTSD Mood Disorders Major depressive disorder Bipolar disorder Symptoms Explaining Mood Disorders Neurotransmitter theories Dopamine Norepinephrine Serotonin Glutamate (implicated in bipolar disorder) Genetic component more closely related people show similar histories of mood disorders Situational Bases for Depression Suicide and risk factors Psychotic Disorders (example: Schizophrenia) Symptoms of Schizophrenia Causes of schizophrenia Classic explanation Drug-induced Childhood-onset Early warning signs The Dopamine Theory and other Biological Factors Environmental Influences on Schizophrenia Personality Disorders Antisocial Personality Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder Know just the basic definition and information for any other personality disorders Dissociative Disorders and Somatoform Disorders What is dissociation? Dissociative Amnesia Dissociative Fugue Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) Causes of Dissociative Disorders? The DID Controversy Disorders in childhood ADHD Autism spectrum disorders For each know definition, symptoms, life problems Know myths about causes of ASD Chapter 16 - Treatment • Treatment – see additional list for treatment chapter concepts o Psychosocial therapies o Biologically-based / Medical Model treatments More will be added to the Chapter 16 study list based on what we have time to cover at the end of the semester. here is the study huide

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