Please answer the following ten short questions, justifying your answer. Please answer each of the questions using a maximum of 150 words. IMPORTANT: In order to pass this exercise, it is essential that students provide answers to the questions in their own words, demonstrating that they have completed the mandatory readings and understood their contents. Points will be deducted for answers that are not referenced properly. Answers that contain paragraphs copied word for word without proper referencing are considered plagiarism and will be marked with a D. Why is it important to conduct a review of the existing literature when embarking on a research project? What are the differences between inductive reasoning from deductive reasoning? How does this refer to the relation between theory and research? A researcher is planning to conduct a study about whether democracies solve their international disputes by peaceful or coercive means. To do so, she is considering whether she should either rely on econometric models, or on in-depth interviews with high-rank officials. Is this an epistemological or an ontological consideration? Please justify your answer. What is the role of theory in International Relations? In other words, what does the discipline of International Relations consider to be theory? What is the key difference between a grand theory and a middle-range theory? Please cite one example of each in International Relations. How are the so-called ‘Great Debates’ of the International Relations discipline related to the discussion of whether the study of world politics is a science or an art? What does the process of iteration refer to? Which research approach is it most relevant? Why interpretivist epistemologies reject that the social world can be studied the methods of the natural sciences? What is the difference between ontology and epistemology? Please justify your answer Why is methodology fundamental for conducting research? Exercise 2: Case analysis This exercise requires students to think about the two cases below and to answer questions related to the methodology of each case. Case 1: A fellow student of this program is interested in doing a study on media coverage of different international events. In one of her chapters, she wants to find out whether Western media gives more attention to conflicts occurring in Central Africa than to conflicts occurring in the Caucasus. Case 2: An international relations scholar is designing a research project that aims to find out whether concepts such as “democracy” or “civil liberties” have the same interpretation in China and Canada, countries with vastly different cultural backgrounds, political cultures, and stages of development. For each of these two cases, please write a brief text of no more than a maximum of 200 words, addressing the following questions: ● Which methodological approach is more appropriate for the researcher in this case, inductive or deductive? Please justify your answer. ● Is the researcher working with an empiricist or an interpretivist epistemology? Why? Please explain. ● Is the researcher adhering to an objectivist or a constructionist ontology? Please justify your answer. IMPORTANT: Please read the cases carefully before answering the questions. Answer each question according to the information you are given, not according to how you would act in this situation. Points will be deducted for answers that are not referenced properly. Answers that contain paragraphs copied word for word without proper referencing are considered plagiarism and will be marked with a D.