* I have attached my discussion post and the instructions below also the 2 respones you will need to respond too (100 words each minimun) The responses are seprate! Discussion Instructions The purpose for this discussion forum is to allow you to analyze a leadership case study and begin identifying the qualities of an effective ethical decision making framework. To do this, read the leadership/decision making case study below and develop your response(s) to the following questions in at least 750 words. Your post should contain 2 peer reviewed sources. After your initial post, reply to a post from 2 (two) other students. Each reply should be at least 250 words and contain one peer reviewed source. Questions: 1) What are the factors that contributed to Earl Shackleton's effective decision making? 2) How can these same decision making factors be applied to decisions in information systems? My Discussion Post Decision Making and Information Systems Despite failing, Shackleton's expedition to the Antarctic (Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition 1914-1917) remains one of the most memorable lessons of effective leadership. This voyage took place under the stewardship of Sir Ernest Shackleton with a crew of twenty-seven men. In the events that unfolded, the ship got stuck in masses of ice in the Weddell Sea, thus making any movement impossible (Koehn et al., 2003). Shackleton and his men were stuck in the ice for 497 days, equivalent to fourteen months. Their capability to survive in such adverse weather conditions relied primarily on Shackleton's open-door policy leadership approach (Koehn et al., 2003). The open-door policy that Shackleton adopted was efficient in that it enabled his crew to stay always motivated amid the challenges they were facing. This admirable leadership ensures that all the twenty-eight men came out of the entire experience alive. Information systems are a crucial aspect within the scope of leadership and decision-making. Strategic leadership, such as that portrayed by Shackleton during the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, is an aspect that information operational information systems of corporations can borrow from in recent times (Bhuiyan et al., 2017). Seeing as an information system also deals with human resources, a leader should ensure that they can efficiently manage the human resource. Human resource management is the capability that Shackleton achieved by keeping his crew members always motivated amid the difficult conditions they were facing (Koehn et al., 2013). Making decisions within an information system, especially those dealing with human resources, requires that a leader be intrinsically motivated to pass down their motivation to the people they are managing (Bhuiyan et al., 2017). In essence, Shackleton's expedition to the Antarctic represents a crucial capability within information systems, especially within human resource management. References Bhuiyan, F., Rahman, M. M., & Gani, M. O. (2017). Impact of human resource information system on firm financial performance. International Journal of Business and Management, 10(10), 171. Koehn, N. F., Helms, E., & Mead, P. (2003). Leadership in Crisis: Ernest Shackleton and the epic voyage of the Endurance (pp. 9-803). Harvard Business School Please Respond to these discussions seprately 1) Kayla Vasquez Leadership in Crisis Leadership in Crisis 1) What are the factors that contributed to Earl Shackleton's effective decision making? - Earl Shackleton engaged in one of the most fierce competitions in the nations to be the first to arrive to the South Pole. There were many disadvantages that Britain suffered from. The commander, Major Robert Scott and members of the National Antarctic Expedition and no experience going to the South Pole. Scott's crew later in competion would no longer use the dog team and skis. Other British expeditions recorded dangerous errors, costly expenses, lack of equipment. and extreme weather conditions their equoiment cound'nt detect. In 1901-1902, Scott and Shackleton failed their mission of getting to the South Pole but were closer than the any other team. TIn 1905, Scott published a book, " Voyage of the Discovery", and talked about how Shackleton was the blame for the failure of not completing reaching the South Pole. Shackleton then decided to plan his own expedition to the South Pole. He then started net working to family members and 70 different businesspeople and philanthropists. His mission that he promised was to use a car and motoriized sledge on ice. By 1907, Shackleton raised the funds he needed and secured endorsements. Shackleton completed the journey to the South in two years with 3 others. Since Shackleton with his journey he began a new crossing to Antarctica with six others to the Weddell Sea. South Georgia reported their was unexpected obstacles and their ship would get stuck. Shackleton stayed in South Georgia and observed the precautions, although nothing has changed he begun his journey. At a good distance they spotted their first pack ice. The frozen sea was heading to their journey to the Antarctica. By Christmas Eve, they stayed put and celebrated the holiday. In order to get out of the thick ice they hauled a large anchor and chain to get them moving. Shackleton ordered everyone to be on top of their duties and staying organzied. Duties included organizing supplies, cleaning the anchors and keeping them rust free, swabbing decks and hulls, and watching for any breaks in the ice. He also ordered members to hunt and fish for any seal or preguin to avoid getting low on fresh meat. Shackleton wanted to avoid the mistakes that other teams reported they suffered from. He did an excellent job organizing life on board that included meal time, work, and entertainment. During the slow winters, Shackleton kept his crew productive and to start drilling the dog sleds. Shackleton assigned specific men to be the leaders of each group. Months and months pasted and the ship was still iced in Shackleton decided to have the men march across the ice even though it was extremely dangerous and they had no experience. They used devices that monitored the movement of ice from Endurance. As there were traveling they made their last stop in Rio de Janeiro when Shackleton suffered and recovered from a heart attack. He got medical treatment and continued to travel with his crew as he almost made his destination. Early next morning he suffered a second fatal heart attack. His crew buried Shackleton in South Gerogia Island. Worsley wrote in his memory of Shackleton he was a great explorer and was committed to Polar work. Most importantly he never lost a man in his crew even though they went through dangerous situations. Shackleton was a excellent leader and made the best effective decisions for him and his crew while maintaining positive/motivating energy to get the crew to their mission safe. Shackleton was committed to ensuring his crew to continue traveling even after he suffered his first heart attack. 2) How can these same decision making factors be applied to decisions in information systems? The same decision making factors could be applied to making decisions in information systems by incfluencing to make the best decisions. For example, he could of determined data and alalysis from the other British expeditons and it would of helped him analyze and achieve a better strategies to complete his mission while traveling. In the article, "Corporate Strategy Changes and Information Technology Control Effectiveness in Multibusiness Firms", explains how important by creating IT controls to help prevent risks and to achieve any objectives. Strategy helps control the environment by strategic objectives, structures, employee traits, characteristics, and culture. In order to create IT controls it needs to be aligned with environment which is determined by the firm's strategy. Having conntrol of any objective allows one to achieve their mission. If Shackleton had all of his decision making factors in a information system he could include all his information on traveling throughout his journey, weather conditions, personal feedback from his six crew members, mistakes, achievements and reporting all valuable infomation. On Shackletons journey he was very affective making decisons when they occured he always had a back up plan. This same effectiveness can be applied to information system when incidents occur we need to have a effective backup plan that is going to resolve any issue we face and keep our information secure. Output controls are designed to keep IT applications safe. In order for IT to be effectiv they need to first design effectiveness and second opperate effectively. When using technologies and system it helps with being more adaptive and successful. It helps with decisions and taking action when your able to communicate with others through a computer system and database. References Koehn, N. (2010) Leadership in Crisis: Ernest Shackleton and the Epic Voyage of the Endurance Tanriverdi, H. & Kui Du. (2020) Corportate Strategy Changes and Infomaation Technology Control Effectivness in Multibusiness Firms. MIS Quartley, 44(4), 1573-1617 2)Angelica Wynter Stewart Week 2 DB Post Leadership in Crisis 1) What are the factors that contributed to Earl Shackleton's effective decision making? Earl Shackleton proved himself worthy to lead a crew of men upon a dangerous polar expedition through prioritizing decisions and his ability to take certain risks head on. The very term, leadership, has been defined in a variety of ways. It has, in fact, been defined in more than two hundred ways, often accompanied by incompatible definitions within the same book, according to Joseph Rost (1991). Numerous scholars of leadership would argue that leaders should be simultaneously decisive and flexible, visionary and open-minded or charismatic and managerial, all in the same breath (Chitpin, 2019). Effective decision making relies a lot on how one deals with complexity and uncertainty in distressing situations. Shackleton was also resourceful, as he had an ability to conjure up financial support and resources when needed for his expeditions. Although his crew had to survive unspeakably harsh conditions, Shackleton faced the risks head on and ensured that an environment of team cohesiveness was maintained regardless of the various situations faced during the polar exploration. This helps to keep the morale intact and ease rebellious tension. His ability to ease these tensions had a lot to do with the respect garnered from his crew due to experience gained from previous expeditions. Shackleton was able to accurately survey certain conditions and assess what steps needed to be taken in order to ensure the survival of his crew. This is the type of leadership that enables a person to implement effective decision making processes when faced with imminent danger and disastrous conditions. Shackleton also had a degree of emotional intelligence that played a role in his successful voyage and leadership ability. The main features of an emotionally intelligent leader are also described by Goleman (2003), of which, self awareness, self-regulation, social awareness and empathy. Difficult decisions are characterized by the presence of insufficient objective information and high financial, material or human consequences. Any leader who is called upon to make difficult decisions, can be expected to undergo some amount of internal emotional turmoil. The possibility of an irrational decision increases with the increase in the emotional tumult (Moon, 2021). 2) How can these same decision making factors be applied to decisions in information systems? One of the biggest factors of effective decision making is how uncertainty and risks are handled. In IT, risk management and business continuity principles call for the cohesiveness of not only the management team, but various IT personnel and other organizational employees. The success of this perspective, however, depends on a commitment by all the actors involved or, as Fullan (2007) so aptly quips, “The litmus test of all leadership is whether it mobilizes people’s commitment to putting their energy into actions designed to improve things. It is individual commitment, but above all it is collective mobilization”. From a distributed perspective, leadership needs to account for all of the actors who practice the process, regardless of their roles, minor or major, in a collective mobilization that seeks to improve a situation or create lasting organizational change (Chitpin, 2019). When it comes to developing effective processes for business continuity management, it takes the combined effort of the entire organization to ensure that these processes are implemented correctly and adequate support is provided. Risk intelligence is also an important factor, because personnel should be able to make data driven decisions despite sans personal perspectives and beliefs. This was demonstrated through Shackleton’s ability to assess when situations were so dire that immediate death was certain, so he always took the steps necessary to ensure his crew’s survival. Risk intelligence is the personal ability to remove distortive biases, to take data driven decisions and to leverage social and organizational situational awareness to achieve an informed risk attitude in face of uncertainty which allows for a cognitively complex risk based decision founded upon assessment and evaluation of probabilities and consequences of multiple decision pathways which can reduce threats, increase opportunities and create value (Moon, 2021). Risk intelligence plays a large role in creating and developing sufficient risk assessments and management policies. When personnel know how to accurately assess and manage risks, they will be better equipped to implement and readjust processes related to the maintenance and prevention of disruptions. Another important factor that relates to IT is anticipating outcomes and preparing for consequences. Similar to departing on a boat for a polar expedition, certain outcomes should be reviewed and discussed before populating in real form. There are vital systems and sensitive data at risk if outcomes are not prepared and accounted for. Overall, effective decision making plays a important role in maintaining an effective IT management and business continuity system for an organization.